Selenium is one of the most popular open-source frameworks for web testing automation, introduced in 2004.  Selenium allows you to automate many of your web browser-based tests. This includes testing on mobile devices like iOS and Android, testing with browsers on desktops, and sometimes even testing websites such as Facebook.  Selenium powers many web browsers for both automated and manual screen tests. It is used for automation testing, web application testing, and mobile app testing. Web Driver allows an automation tool to communicate with a web browser from the command line or from a Windows service. These scripts are written using different programming languages like Java, Perl, and PHP. In this way, Selenium makes it easy to write highly automated tests for websites and apps that involve multiple browser sessions. 

Here’s About Selenium Automation Testing

Selenium is a popular open-source software for automation testing web applications. It encompasses five major components, namely, Selenium IDE, Web-driver and Remote Control, Test Scripts of Java Programmer, and the Test Server.  Selenium is a great open-source tool. It has a broad range of features, which enable the business to create more scenarios and complete more Automation Testing processes in an easy manner. One can use Selenium to run their Selenium Tests over any web application on their computers, these tests include validating data and combinations with other applications like; users, logins, validations, and so on.  Selenium IDE, Selenium Web-driver, Selenium RC, Selenium Grid and Selenium Client API. These components are also known as test tools.  Selenium is an Automation Testing software, which is used to test web application systems, such as those developed on J2EE, J2ME, Silver-light, and HTML 5.

How Selenium Automation Testing Tool Works-

Selenium is a suite of open-source tools that can help you in automating a number of web browsers.

Their components and usage of them are given below:

1) Selenium IDE:  Selenium is a tool used to automate the web testing process. It gives the ability to automate the testing of web browsers, robots, and mobile applications. Selenium allows you to do the following: Record and playback scripts, test multiple client types at a time, run parallel tests across multiple instances, and identify and fix software bugs.

2) Selenium Remote Control (SRC):
Selenium is a Web-driver used to automate web applications on websites and web browsers. It can be used for testing the functionality of an application, which might not be available at the moment, or so that you can easily prepare for making it available later on. Selenium has been used widely in web automation with JavaScript and Python languages.

3) Selenium Grid: 
Selenium Remote Control is a tool that helps in scaling up the test cases suites. It helps in running the tests on different remote machines at the same time. This helps in improving performance, time to run, and efficiency.  Parallel Testing is a framework to manage multiple test cases in parallel on different machines. This allows the selenium remote control to allocate resources for parallel processing, which means that it can run different tests at the same time on different machines.

4) Selenium Web Driver: 
Selenium 2 is the most advanced version of Selenium. It has a lot of new features, improved performance, and better coding quality. This version of selenium comes with a web driver which is easier to use and more flexible than the old version. It uses custom elements in the HTML pages for inside testing that reduces test failures. The support for Chrome and Firefox is also added in this version. The Control API takes care of receiving these commands and then running them on the website in order to get the results.

Advantages of Using Selenium for Automated Testing Tool

1. Language and Framework Support:

Selenium is software that allows the users to write test scripts in any of the major programming languages and convert them into Selenium-compatible codes. So, there is no need for knowing Selenium only languages. Also, every Selenium-supported language has dedicated frameworks that help in writing test scripts for Selenium test automation.  It provides support for all major programming languages like Java, Python, JavaScript, C#, Ruby, and Perl as well as in test scripts written in any of these languages. In short, Selenium supports all languages that you like to use while writing your test scripts.

2. Open Source Availability

The community behind Selenium is constantly improving the tool and making it one of the best alternatives to web automation. The open-source availability of Selenium makes it a good choice for those who want to not worry about cost upfront or licensing fees. Moreover, the community of developers and software engineers continuously helps in developing new functionalities and improving existing ones. It acts as a framework, which allows the developers to build checklists for the acceptance or regression test based on their business needs. 

3. Multi-Browser Support

Selenium is the most downloaded test automation tool by-product and organizations. It powers thousands of tests daily and it has been used in various organizations like Google, Yahoo, Twitter, and many more. However, writing Selenium scripts for different browsers can be a tough task as you may have to rewrite each script depending on which browser you are using.  We’ve included this article to help you get started with Selenium Web-Driver.

4. Support Across Various Operating Systems

Selenium is a free, open-source web application automation tool that allows developers to automate web application testing. It can be used as standalone software or with popular tools like Jira and Confluence. Selenium is user-friendly and can be easily used in different operating systems across platforms such as Windows and Mac OS. The best thing about it is that it supports all languages and can run on all versions of Microsoft Windows, Apple Mac OS X, and Linux as well. This enables testing teams to write code in Java without much concern about the platform where they want to execute those tests.

5. Ease Of Implementation

Selenium automates a series of tests that check the behaviour of a program as it has been traditionally done manually. The idea is to automate manual tasks and reduce human errors in testing. Selenium uses browsers to execute the tests on web applications. Selenium provides many tools that simplify the scripting process of executing tests, such as browser automation through the recording of keyboard commands and mouse clicks, data entry windows, forms with manual entries, and more. It helps us create and execute test scripts easily and effectively. 

6. Re-usability and Integrations

Selenium is a testing framework that lets developers write tests in a language-independent manner and run them with ease. The test cases build up on each other and thereby, they require less effort to maintain, modify, and modify the desired system. For example, you can use the same set of functionalities for the test cases performed by on-grid testing. Hence, Selenium automation acceptance testing is able to perform many intangibles such as compliance testing and rapid roll-out of enhancements.  The best part about Selenium is that it has a wide community of contributors and supporters with more than 3000 projects under the umbrella of Selenium Web-driver Consortium.

7. Flexibility

Selenium is a framework for automating browser-based applications. We often use Selenium to test our website and web applications by writing tests that can be executed by Selenium. Using Selenium makes it easier and faster to test various aspects of an application. Test cases are grouped in different categories, and then they are executed in parallel, making it easier to test your entire application at once.  It is designed with a test framework to make the code more reliable and efficient. Its flexibility adds to its popularity in software development. This tool finds the errors and failures in a web-page, whether there is any bug in the code or not. It helps developers and testers in finding errors that do not get noticed until they are found during testing. 

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